Archaeological and historical evidence suggests that cotton, though not indigenous to the Philippines, was already being cultivated in the islands before colonial times. Cotton textiles are also said to have been traded in exchange for foreign goods.
Two varieties of cotton could be found in settlements across the Luzon Cordillera: kapas and kimmayo. Kapas (ka’po in Ifugao) is a plant variety that grows to a height of around 2 feet. Kimmayo (inchamey in Bontoc areas and tu’kling in Ifugao) is a tree that can grow to a height of 7-10 feet.