what is the k 12 program in the Philippines?

k 12 program in the philippines
The K 12 Program in the Philippines | Image Source: depedvalenzuela.ph


The K 12 program in the Philippines was introduced in 2013. It was in 2013 when RA 10533 became a law. This law is known as the “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013”.

It was popularly called K to 12 because the act, (RA 10533), enhanced the Philippine Basic Education System by strengthening its curriculum and increasing the number of years for basic education.

Basic education in the Philippines before K to 12 consists of 6 years of elementary education and 4 years of high school education.

The enhanced basic education act of 2013 or K to 12 as it is commonly known now, provides for a mandatory

  • 1 year of Kindergarten,
  • 6 years of elementary,
  • 4 years of junior high school, and
  • 2 years of senior high school.

The K 12 program applies to both public educational institutions and private educational institutions.

The enhanced basic education act of 2013 or RA 10533 did not only lengthened the number of years of basic education but also provided that basic education may not only be delivered via regular schools but may likewise be delivered through the alternative learning system.

Acceleration of students or learners in public and private basic educational institutions is still allowed in accordance with the Department ofEducation rules and regulations.

The very goal of the K 12 Program is to produce 21st-century graduates equipped with the core values and lifelong competencies they need to contribute to societal development and nation-building.

The two additional years of Senior High School (SHS) will provide graduates with four exits and life options, namely, employment, entrepreneurship, higher education, and middle-level skills development.

What is the legal basis of the K-12 curriculum?

The Philosophical and legal basis of the K-12 curriculum are the following:

  • The 1987 Philippine Constitution
  • B.P. 232, Education Act of 1982
  • The 4 Pillars of Education (UNESCO)
  • The Vision-Mission Statement of the Department of Education
  • The EDCOM Report of 1991
  • Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA)
  • R.A. No.9155, Philippine Governance Act

The recent news that the K to 12 programs were abolished by the government was not true.

The K to 12 program was created by law and only a law will abolish or repel it. It cannot be abolished or repelled by the President or anybody for that matter.

Remember that the duty or mandate of the President of the Philippines is to enforce the law.

Only the Congress of the Philippines, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives, has the power to abolished or repel a law such as the “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013”, popularly known as K to 12.


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