The word and the man
Bini is the root word of mabini, Tagalog for modest and demure. Said twice, bini becomes binibini, or maiden, the ideal Filipino “miss”. Mabini’s synonym is mahinhin, meaning behaving according to a standard of what is decorous, or being modest. More or less expressive of the attributes of kabinian or kahinhinan are three more words: himan, meaning reserve; hinay, which is gentleness; and, hinahon, that is serenity or calmness. Mabini is also Apolinario, the man who was called “the soul of the insurgent movement” by the Americans he defied during the years of the Revolution.
The American project to take over the Philippines was served well by photography. Images, favorably or unfavorably, at times distortedly captioned depending on intent, were sent back home to show off the new possession: it’s land and natural resources, the people and their activities. Stereoscopic views (stereographs or stereoscopic cards) were popular. These were an early form of 3D. Images were generated with the use of a camera with two lenses and had to be viewed with a stereoscope, but like ordinary photographs could be printed.
Better class of Filipinos — who welcome American rule — Manila, Philippines
Stereo view photograph
© 1899 Underwood & Underwood